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定语从句

[日期:2017/2/7 9:28:00] 阅读:3720

一、定语从句

1.定语从句三步:第一找出先行词;第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语);第三选择合适的关联词。

2.定语从句在选择关联词thatwhich时,常常容易出错,所以应记住什么时候只能用that,什么时候只能用which.

1).只能用 that 的情况归纳4种:即先得词被序数词最高级修饰过;先行词为all everythingnothing等不定代词;先行词同时是人和物并列时;最后先行词分别被the only the very the samethe last 修饰。请看下列四组例句,注意其先行词:

①.The first thing that we should do is to workout a plan .

②.I t almost seemed as if the good man weretrying to teach us all that he knew at this lesson .

③.Later my father and Mr. Crosset talked forabout half an four of things and persons that they  remembered in school.

④.This is the very dictionary that I want tofind .

2).只用which is 情况有两种情况:一是非限制性定语从句,关联词要用which;二是做介词宾语时只能用which。请看下列两组例句:

       I said nothing , which made him moreangry .

       I have the book about which you aretalking .

三、在定语从句的非限制性定语中,which as 是容易混淆的。在很多情况下两者兼可互换,但在下列情况中不可互换:

       1、通常As 可以放在整句的句首,而which,只能在逗号之后,as 本身含有“正如”,as 在定语从句中既可是主语也可做宾语

As appear from her paper ,she has read widely in Romantic literature.

She is remarkable, as I have told you .

       2 which 在做非限制性定语从句关联词时可以无明确先行词,指前句整个的意思,如:She has married again, which surprises us .

四、在定语从句中,许多人往往分不清all that what, what 实际上只引导名词性从句,它相当于all that两个字,例如:

       All that I know is that he has madeup his mind to heave the country for a new place.

  = what I  know is that ……

 

  

定语从句

 

知识要点:

 一、限定性定语从句:

 

种类

先行词

关联词

例句

说明

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(人)在从句中做主语或宾语

 

 

 

在从句中做主语或宾语

 

 

 

who

 

 

 

 

 

which

 

This is the doctor who saved the boy’s life .

这就是救了孩子生命的医生。

She is the new student whom I want to introduce to you .

她就是我要介绍给你的新学生

Please pass me the book which is lying on the table.

请递给我摆在桌上的那本书。

The novel which Tom bought is very interesting.

汤姆买的小说很有意思。

Can you lend me the magazine about which you talked yesterday?

你能把昨天谈到的那本杂志借给我吗?

who在从句中做主语

whom在从句中做宾语,口语中who可以代替whom,也可以被省去,但做介词宾语时只能用whom

 

 

which在从句中做主语。

which充当宾语时可以省去。

 

 

which做介词宾语不可省

 

 

 

 

种类

先行词

关联词

    

  

 

 

 

 

 

whose

The professor whose daughter teaches you English is Dr. Williams

那位教授是威廉斯他的女儿教你英语。

The professor, the daughter of whom teaches you English is Dr. Williams.

The bike whose brake was damaged has now been repaired.

那辆坏了闸的自行车现在已经修好了。

=The bike the brake of which was damaged has now been repaired 

whose在从句中做定语

指某人的也可以用…of whom代替whose

 

指物时也可以用…of which 代替 whose

 

 

 

 

 

that

The woman that is playing the piano is Miss Zhang.

正在弹钢琴的那位妇女是小姐。

I’d like to see the films that are just on show.

我想看那些刚上映的电影。

that指人做主语

 

 

that指物做主语

 

种类

先行词

关联词

       

  

 

 

 

all, little muchsome,any every ,no 构成的合成代词

 

 

 

 

 

that

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that

 

 

They talked for about an hour of things and  persons that they remember in the school.

他们谈起他们所记得起的学校里的人和事,谈了大约有半个小时。

I’ll tell you all(that )I know about it .

我要告诉你我所知道这件事的一切情况。

Is there anything (that) I can do for you?

有什么我可以帮助做的事吗?

I’ve brought everything (that )you need.

我把你需要的东西都拿来了。

 

 

This is the best film that I have seen .

这是我看过的最好的一部电影。

The first place that we’ll visit is Beijing Library.

我们要参观的第一个地方是北京图书馆

先行词分别表示人和物,关系代词要用that,不用whowhich

先行词表示物,关系代词用that不用which, 在从句中做宾语可省去 。如果先行词是人时,关系代词不受制约,用thatwho (whom)

均可

 

 

先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时定语从句用that引导。

 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that

He is the only person that is believable.

他是唯一可靠的人。

John is the very person that she wants to see.

约翰正是她要见的人。

Who is the man that is talking with Tom ?

正在和汤姆谈话的人是谁?

Which of the books that you bought is easy to read?

你买的那些书中哪一本容易读。

先行词被the only, the very,the same 等修饰时用关系代词that.

 

 

当主句以whowhich开头的特殊疑问句时,定语从句要用that

 

 

 

when

He came at a time when we. needed him most.他在我们最需要的时候来了。

We’ll never forget the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded.

我们永远不会忘记中华人民共和国成立的那一天。

在定语从句中作时间状语

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       注:先行词是time, minute, moment, next tim很少用关系副词when,可用that但通常省去。

 

地点

where

This is the room where he put up for the night.

这就是他渡过夜晚的那房子。

在定语从句中作地点状语

原因

理由

why

I know the reason why she studies so well .

我知道她学习好的原因。

在定语从句中作原因状语

 

2)非限制性定语从句

 

种类

先行词

关联词

    

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

没有固定的先行词而是一个句子

 

who

whom

 

 

 

 

 

 

which

 

 

 

which

 

 

 

 

as

George ,who is my classmate, has won a scholarship.

乔治获得了奖学金,他是我的同学。

Dr. Li , whom I know very well, will come here tomorrow.

李大夫明天将来这儿,我跟他很熟悉。

I gave him a New Year card ,which he enjoyed very much.

我给他一张贺年卡,他很喜欢它。

He studies hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life .

他年轻时在校学习努力,这导致了他后来生活中的成功。

He gets up early as is always his habit.

他总是早起床,这是他的习惯。

John was admitted into the college, as we had expected.

约翰被大学录取了,这是我们期待的。

The earth ,as is known to all ,is round.

人人皆知,地球是圆的。

 

who, whom不能省去,也不能用that代替

 

 

 

 

 

 

which指物,不可省去,也不能用that代替

 

 

which作主语指它前面的整个句子,不可用that代替,强调结果。

 

 

 

as指全句,在从句中做主语。

 

 

as指全句意思,在从句中做宾语。

 

 

as引导的定语从句可以放在句首,句中或句末。

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the same book as I lost yesterday.

这本书与我昨天丢失的那本书一样。

用于the same as, such as ,asas等结构中。

 

 

3)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

 

 

限制性定语从句

非限制性定语从句

从句与先行词的关系

从句是先行词不可缺少的定语,如果省去,主句的意思就会不完整或不明确。

从句只是对先行词的附加说明,如果省去,主句的意思仍然清楚或完整

 

从句和主句之间不用逗号分开

从句和主句之间通常用逗号分开

指人who (that) whom

指物which (that)

人和物whose

关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省去

指人who(作主语)whom(做宾语)

指物which

人和物的whose

关系代词一般不可省

修饰

从句只修饰一个名词或代词

可以修饰一个名词或代词也可修饰整个主句

翻译

定语从句译在被修饰词的前面

定语从句通常被译成另一个独立的句子

 

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